Examples of types of fallacies

Unreasonable ways of debating

Circular reasoning

A campaign will not be effective, because no one will cooperate.

Appeal to power

I hope you will never be in those circumstances.

Appeal to consequences

When you succeed, we will all pay for the consequences.

Appeal to figurative arguments

It is pointless to act, because somewhere else things are being worse.

Appeal to unknown arguments

Of course it is allowed what people do with animals, because man is smarter.

Pars pro toto

I can give you examples of situations where animals were killed but many human lives were saved.

Getting personal

You say you are pro animals, but you take advantage of them too.

Appeal to authority

I study biology and I know why animal experimentation is necessary.

Appeal to ignorance

Animals don't mind being used, because you can't prove they do.

Appeal to supposed relation

We have always used animals and that was very successful.

Appeal to supposed common sense

Most people agree with the use of animals.

Appeal to compassion

People lose their job when animals are no longer allowed to be used.

Evasion of evidence

Every sane human being knows there is nothing wrong in using animals.

Distortion of arguments

Granting rights to animals means treating them the same as humans.

This article is part of a series on falsities and demagogy.
Some arguments used in debate on the topics in the title simply are invalid. That goes for pro and contra. We selected a few of the most rigid arguments from different situations and placed an appropriate counterargument. Because a more clear and honest way of reasoning helps improve the circumstances animals live in. Mail us if you encounter other or new (counter)-arguments. Apart from the specific issues there are the types of arguments in general. Fallacies are deliberately or accidentally used in a debate. So be aware of the principles and the integrity of an opponent. Click here for tips on how to react to animal-unfriendly behavior of others.

Non-valid arguments (deceptive arguments) for different groups